January 21, 2017
by Mayumi Otsuka, Mai Takezawa, and Kanako Wakamatsu
You can see Kimono (old style Japanese clothes) all over Japan, but especially in Kyoto. Kimonos have many different patterns and colors, but do you know how many of them are actually designed? Well, the designs on kimonos are often achieved by dyeing, using a method known as Kyo-yuzen. Here, we would like to introduce some aspects of this unique dyeing method.
1. History of Japanese dyeing methods
2. What is Kyo-yuzen?
3. How to dye by using Kyo-yuzen
4. Kyo-yuzen in foreign countries
5. Actual experience of Kyo-yuzen
History of Japanese dyeing methods
There have been a lot of dyeing methods used in Japan over the years, and most of these were developed from Chinese dyeing types. These were introduced to Japan several thousand years ago, and taught by people from China or Korea, they formed the basis of Japanese dyeing tradition. Before this people dyed clothes very simply by applying different types of grass, flowers or even mud. In the Asuka era, in the middle of the 6th century, there was a system developed that divided people by the color of the clothes they wore. This was to distinguish between class and status, and required greater use of color in fabrics and design. In addition, in the Nara era, in the 8th century, international trade was increased, which meant further diversification in dyeing methods were introduced and spread all over Japan, with each area developing its own style. One of the most famous of these was Kyo-yuzen, a dyeing method created in Kyoto that became hugely popular. Next, we would like to introduce this unique and beautiful, traditional Japanese item.
What is Kyo-yuzen?
Kyo-yuzen is one of the dyeing methods developed in Kyoto during the Edo era of the mid to late 17th century. At that time, there was an artist in Kyoto by the name of Miyazaki Yuzensai, who had built a reputation for the exquisitely drawn folding fans he produced. Due to this, his patrons soon began to encourage him to apply his artistic skills to designs for kimono, too, which he did. Following this, his name quickly came to be associated with top class kimono design in Kyoto, hence the name that was given to this particular dyeing style, Kyo-yuzen.
There are some interesting features unique to Kyo-yuzen that need to be noted. First, it is possible to apply any kind of design you want, just like drawing a picture. Second, there are many colors and hues used in the production of Kyo-yuzen pieces. Third, a technique using elements of glutinous rice is used to guard against colors mixing or merging together. Finally, Kyo-yuzen is done by combining more than one dyeing method, and requires several steps to achieve a final result. Through this, Kyo-yuzen is quite superior to other dyeing methods and has become very popular all over the world.
Kyo-yuzen in foreign countries
As we said before, Kyo-yuzen is very famous globally. For example, some events involving Japanese culture have been held recently in Paris, and there are sales booths for Kyo-yuzen products set up there. At the booths, stainless steel mugs that are made in cooperation between Japanese Kyo-yuzen craftpersons and craftpersons in Paris are sold, and these are also available in Eigamura, a very famous sightseeing spot in Kyoto. Selling a large number of these mugs means expanding the exposure to traditional crafts of Kyoto to people in foreign countries
How to dye by using Kyo-yuzen
There are two main types of dyeing method used for Kyo-yuzen. One of these is hand painting, and the other is using stencils. First, we will explain the hand painting method:
- Think of the design you want for the cloth and make a design pattern
- Trace the design onto the cloth
- Apply the special glue ② to prevent the colors from mixing with each other (this is called Itomenorioki)
- Apply the colors to the cloth
- Steam the cloth
- Wash the cloth
- Steam the cloth again and stretch out the wrinkles
- Using a stencil, draw the design onto special Japanese paper and cut out the pattern to make the stencil
- Paste the cloth onto a wooden board that is called “Yuzen-Ita”
- Put ① onto ② and dye
- Same as ⑤～⑦ of hand painting method
Actual experience of Kyo-yuzen
In Kyoto, visitors can actually experience Kyo-yuzen at some special studios. Participants can experience dyeing cloth items like handkerchiefs, wrapping cloths, and so on. One session is usually about one and a half hours long, and costs between 1,500 yen and 2,500 yen. Therefore, you can experience a traditional craft of Kyoto easily, and after the lesson, you can take the Kyo-yuzen item that you made with your own hands home with you.
Japanese dyeing methods have continued to develop over the centuries, and Kyo-yuzen especially. This method was created by combining a lot of different dyeing methods, which have been improved upon over time, and have become famous all over the world. You can buy Kyo-yuzen items in many places in Kyoto, and you can also make them by yourself. Why not give it a try!
One of the studios where you can experience Kyo-yuzen is “Marumasu-Nishimuraya” in Kyoto city.
Here’s their website: http://www.marumasu-nishimuraya.co.jp/
You can reserve an experience time and get the access details there.