February 1, 2014
What do you associate with the Japanese tea ceremony? Many people may come up with quietness or emphasized simplicity, but how many of them know that these ideas were actually introduced by Sen no Rikyu. In fact, in the Muromachi period (1337~1573), the upper classes, including samurai and relations of the royal family, enjoyed tea ceremonies where expensive china for the tea cups was used and lots of guests were invited. However, thanks to the revolutionary thinking of Sen no Rikyu, the Japanese tea ceremony became more refined in style.
He was born in 1522, in what is today’s Osaka prefecture, as the son of a warehouse owner. He started learning the way of tea at a young age, and by the time he was just nineteen, he had already met the great tea master Takeno Jo-o whose teachings would influence him tremendously throughout his life. Late in his life, Sen no Rikyu was called to serve Oda Nobunaga, the most powerful general of that time. After the death of the general, he was employed as a tea master by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who succeeded Nobunaga and controlled Japan. Unfortunately, however, there was sometimes friction between Rikyu and Toyotomi, and this eventually led to Toyotomi forcing Rikyu to commit ritual suicide in 1591.
What did Rikyu search for to improve the style of the tea ceremony?
Sen no Rikyu and his teacher Takeno Jo-o set about trying to introduce the spirit of wabi-sabi into the tea ceremony. Wabi–sabi is a traditional Japanese view of beauty, in which something simple, imperfect and transient is valued. The new style of tea ceremony invented by Rikyu was known as wabi-cha, and became widespread and very popular. The central idea of Rikyu’s new style of tea ceremony was to let guests feel as comfortable as possible, avoiding the use of strict rules and over-elaboration.
The room the wabi-cha style was held in was tiny compared with those used in other ceremony styles, and designed to allow natural light into the interior. Furthermore, the garden that could be viewed from the room was also considered to be a part of the tea room, and therefore should be beautiful, well- maintained but quite natural.
Hospitality in the tea ceremony
One word to explain the spirit of the wabi-cha style is “ich-go-ich-e”, meaning “this occasion and this meeting may come only once in a lifetime, therefore it should be highly valued”. It is taken for granted that the host make the tea there and then, and prepare different sweets to enjoy with the tea for every ceremony, according to who is invited, what the guest would like, or the season, date and time the ceremony is held. However, it is not only the food or drink that the host takes care over, but also the furniture, artworks and tea cups. These are carefully selected to best suit each invited guest.
Recently people may have become too busy to enjoy the tea ceremony, but the spirit of wabi- cha must not be forgotten. If you are interested in Sen no Rikyu’ s beliefs, please try to highly value at least one occasion and one meeting in your life more than you might have done before reading this article.